George Gheverghese Joseph was born in Kerala, Southern India, and lived in India until he was nine. His family then moved to Mombasa in Kenya where he received his schooling. He studied at the University of Leicester and then worked for six years as a teacher in Kenya before returning to pursue his postgraduate studies at Manchester. His teaching and research have ranged over a broad spectrum of subjects in applied mathematics and statistics, including multivariate analysis, mathematical programming and demography. In recent years, however, his research has been mainly on the cultural and historical aspects of mathematics with particular emphasis on the non-European dimensions to the subject and its relevance for mathematics education. He has travelled widely, holding university appointments in East and Central Africa, Papua New Guinea and New Zealand as well as a Royal Society Visiting Fellowship (twice) in India during which he gave lectures at several universities. In 1992, he addressed a special session of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Boston. In 1993 he was invited by the African National Congress of South Africa to take part in a Workshop on 'Mathematics Curriculum Reconstruction for Society in Transition'. In recent years he has been invited to lecture at Hobart, Monash, Perth and Sydney in Australia; at Cornell, Los Angeles, New Mexico, New York, Berkeley and Chicago in the United States; at York, Laval and Toronto in Canada; at Western Cape and Durban in South Africa; at UNAM in Mexico; at Cave Hill in Barbados; and at various universities in Portugal, Spain, Italy, Netherlands, Germany and Norway as well as the United Kingdom. He was invited to Cuba to give the keynote address at the 1st International Conference on Mathematics and Mathematics Education in 1996. In 1997 he gave the Aldis Lecture at the University of Auckland, New Zealand and went on a British Council sponsored lecturing tour to various universities in New Zealand. In January 2000, he organised an International Seminar and Colloquium to commemorate the 1500th year of Aryabhata's famous text, Aryabhateeyam, which was held in Thiruvanthapuram, Kerala, India. He has appeared on radio and televisions programmes in India, United States, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand as well as United Kingdom. His publications include four books: Women at Work ( Philip Allan, Oxford, 1983), The Crest of the Peacock: Non-European Roots of Mathematics ( 1st Hardback Edition, Tauris, 1991; 1st Paperback Edition, Penguin 1992, 2nd Edition, jointly by Penguin Books and Princeton University Press, 2000), Multicultural Mathematics: Teaching Mathematics from a Global Perspective (Oxford University Press, 1993) and George Joseph: Life and Times of a Kerala Christian Nationalist (Orient Longman, 2003). The last named book is a political biography of his grandfather, George Joseph, a close associate of Mahatma Gandhi, Jawarhalal Nehru and other leaders of modern India. His book, The Crest of the Peacock, has been translated into Italian entitled C'era una Volta un Numero (il Saggiatore, 2000), into Japanese (1995) and Spanish entitled La Cresta del Pavo Real (Piramide, 1996). A Malayalam translation of the book is imminent. He is also the author of about 70 articles and chapters in books. He is at present working on two projects: a history of Indian mathematics and a joint project with Dennis Almeida of the University of Exeter, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board, on 'Medieval Kerala Mathematics: The Possibility of its Transmission to Europe'. He organised an international workshop held at Kovalam, Kerala, in December 2005 to mark the completion of the AHRB Project at which notable historians of India, historians and philosophers of mathematics and educationalists participated. In October 2000, he was called to the Bar of the Middle Temple, London. At present he holds joint honorary appointments at Universities of Exeter and Manchester, United Kingdom and at University of Toronto, Canada.
Al-Khwarismi (783-850 CE) Popularized Indian numerals, mathematics including Algebra in the Islamic world and the Christian West .Algebra was named after his treatise 'Al jabr wa'l Muqabalah''which when translated from Arabic means 'Transposition and Reduction'. Little is known about his life except that he lived at the court of the Abbasid Caliph al Ma'amun, in Baghdad shortly after Charlemagne was made emperor of the west. and that he was one of the most important mathematicians and astronomers who worked at the house of Wisdom (Bayt al Hikma)